Preventive attitudes of dry eye syndrome

Preventive attitudes of dry eye syndrome

The prevention of SOS should be mainly aimed at avoiding its triggers or aggravating factors, especially sanitation of the building and its heating and ventilation systems, ergonomic workplace designs, proper work organization, and control of work stress. Joint action on all these factors allows a reduction in the prevalence of all symptoms, estimated at 40 or 50% 28, and savings in direct and indirect costs, currently estimated in the US for this disease in 1,515,085 ± 8,079, $ 1229.

The preventive measures to be applied include both general measures aimed at the sanitation of the building and individual measures of personal application. In any case, the workplace, thermal conditions, and work hours (including breaks) should be planned, facilitating a normal eye blink frequency to minimize alterations of the precorneal tear film. Short and repeated breaks in the day are justified as preventive due to the beneficial effect on the precorneal tear film. Ergonomic adaptive interventions in the workplace8,30 and coordinated action with ophthalmology specialists in implementing preventive approaches31 are fundamental aspects.

Preventive measures and dry eye syndrome

General preventive measures for buildings and dry eye syndrome
Management of decorative elements Eliminates the use of fabrics and carpets. Installation of files and closed shelving
Building cleaning Avoid volatile cleaning agents (formaldehyde), alkyl benzene sulphonates. Use of acaricides every 2 or 3 months
Air conditioning maintenance Ambient temperature below 23 ° C Avoid using humidifiers
Lighting Avoid fluorescent tubes in general lighting Use of direct, non-dazzling lights
Ergonomic measures Correction of the adopted postures Proper positioning of the PVD components Frequent causes
Individual prevention measures
Maintain an ambient humidity greater than 50%
Maintain eyelid hygiene
Use non-irritating or hypoallergenic cosmetic products.
Consult the ophthalmologist, family doctor, or work doctor at the first symptoms
Use suitable artificial tears/gels
Blink consciously (PVD users)
Open eyelids cautiously when waking up and avoid violent scrubbing
Moisten the eye frequently with artificial tears if contact lenses are used and extreme hygiene
In mild allergies, the use of artificial tears as a treatment may be sufficient in some cases, but if not, consult a specialist.
Avoid tobacco smoke and especially polluted environments
In offices or the car, avoid direct drafts to the eyes
Include artificial tears / moisturizing gels in the kit.

In the workplace, it is worth highlighting the preventive work of the occupational physician, especially about health surveillance, performing periodic ophthalmological examinations of workers, and, specifically, those who occupy positions with a higher risk of dry eye.

Along with the above, information and preventive training must be provided to workers regarding specific risks related to SOS: the employer who owns the center must provide the worker with adequate information and instructions on the risks in the workplace. Protection and prevention measures and emergency measures. The self-employed worker must inform the employer of their risks. Our preventive legislation establishes that this information must be provided in writing if the risks are serious or very serious (Art. 14 and Art. 19 LPRL).

Dry eye syndrome: an underrated chronic disease

Dry eye syndrome (SOS) represents a group of its entity with high alterations, which cause symptoms related to ocular discomfort and loss of visual quality. It is associated with the decrease in the production of different tear components, abnormally rapid evaporation of the tear film, or both causes at the same time (these are the three existing types of dry eye: evaporative dry eye, dry eye due to aqueous deficiency and dry eye mixed). It is a chronic disease that affects around a third of the population, a frequency that increases with age: those over 45 years of age affect two-thirds of the population and up to 80% in those over 60 years of age. It affects more women than men, a proportion that more than doubles after the age of 50.
Editor of about 5 million people affected by dry eye. The number of affected increases every year, probably due to the gradual aging of the population, environmental reasons, and the increasingly frequent use of electronic devices such as tablets, computers, or mobile phones.
Anatomy of the tear and eyelids

The tear film is a dense aqueous layer with three main components:

A lipid layer made up of an oily substance
An aqueous layer is made up of water.
A mucin layer is made up of a mucous substance.

Each component serves a specific purpose. For example, lipids prevent the tear from evaporating very quickly; in addition to keeping the eye lubricated for longer, the aqueous layer refreshes and cleanses the conjunctiva of imperfections or dead cells, and the mucin helps to fix the tear to the eye and spread it more homogeneously. The three layers are not separated from each other some authors speak of an aqueous-mucinous phase, as they are intimately united.

Schematic of a stable tear film

Each tear component is produced by different glands of the eye or close to it:

The lipid layer is produced by the Meibomian Glands, glands that are located inside the eyelid. Other minor glands also contribute lipids located on the outer edges of the eyelids, the glands of Moll and Zeiss.
The aqueous layer is produced mainly by the main lacrimal gland (95% of the total), which is a gland that is located above the eyeball behind the eyelids. Other glands also secrete water, and they are the accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring and Krause, which are located inside the eyelid.
The mucin layer is created mainly by goblet cells located in the conjunctiva that covers the sclera (the white part of the eye).

Any problem or dysfunction with any of these glands that produce the tear film components can lead to tearing instability and consequently dry eye of a different type, depending on the component that is affected.

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Written by starinky

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